Venom immunotherapy for children with moderate to severe systemic reaction to insect stings reduces the risk of a similar reaction upon reexposure  and the effect appears to last for 10 to 20 years.
Growth hormone therapy
A common polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor may explain some of the variability in response to growth hormone therapy in short children who are not growth hormone deficient .
In a controlled trial, mean adult height of peripubertal children with idiopathic stature who were treated with growth hormone was 3.7 cm greater than that of controls .
Short bowel syndrome
Intestinal adaptation in children with short bowel syndrome is related to small bowel length, presence of the ileocecal valve, colonic resection, and whether or not primary anastomosis could be performed .
A prospective population based cohort study in the United Kingdom found no convincing evidence of an association between exposure to thimerosal and neurologic or psychologic outcome .
An FDA advisory panel has recommended that antidepressants carry a black box warning that antidepressant medications can increase suicidal tendencies among children and adolescents.
Tinidazole, a nitroimidazole congener of metronidazole, and highly effective for the treatment of giardiasis has been approved by the FDA for treatment of giardiasis in children older than three years and adults .
Although resistance of influenza virus to neuraminidase inhibitors has been uncommon, a report from Japan found that nine of 50 children (18 percent) who were treated with oseltamivir for seven days had drug-resistant viruses .
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
In 2001, 57 percent of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in 49 hospitals in the United States were resistant to methicillin .
Approximately one year after the routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, the prevalence of occult bacteremia in febrile children (2 to 36 months) in one emergency department was <1 percent .
The American Academy of Pediatrics has issued a new clinical practice guideline for the management of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in term and near term infants .
The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition has issued a guideline for the evaluation of cholestatic jaundice in infants .
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has issued the fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents, including new definitions of hypertension .
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A myostatin mutation in a child with gross muscle hypertrophy has been identified , suggesting that myostatin inactivation could be a therapeutic target to increase muscle bulk and strength in muscle wasting diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy .
In a large series of hemispherectomy for pediatric epilepsy of various etiologies, 58 percent of patients were seizure free five years after surgery . Shorter seizure duration before surgery, better seizure control after surgery, and higher presurgery developmental attainment predicted higher postsurgery developmental gains regardless of pathologic substrate. These results support early rather than later surgical evaluation of children who have severe refractory seizures .
The Bogulusa Heart Study provides information correlating BMI and waist circumference with cardiovascular risk factors in children .
The risk for bacteremia or meningitis among febrile infants 60 days of age with RSV bronchiolitis is low. The risk for UTI is less than that for febrile infants without RSV infection, but it is not negligible .
The total number of doses of influenza vaccine for the 2004-2005 season are expected to exceed the number of doses released during the 2003-2004 season. However, vaccine delivery may be delayed because of production problems related to sterility of several lots (4 million doses) of Fluvirin? . Updates on the influenza vaccine supply are available on the CDC website (www.cdc.gov/flu
After the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the routine childhood immunization schedule, invasive pneumococcal disease declined by greater than 90 percent in Northern California children younger than two years of age .
The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine shortage has resolved, permitting return to the standard recommended four-dose schedule for healthy children .
Varicella-related hospitalizations in the United States have decreased from 0.5 to 0.13 per 10,000 population (by 74 percent) after the introduction of the varicella vaccine to the routine childhood immunization schedule .
The secondary attack rate of varicella in household contacts aged 1 to 14 years varies according to age, vaccination status of the primary case, vaccination status of the household contact, and number of lesions of the primary case .
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